**Syllabus of B. Tech. IV Sem EC (RGPV)**

Table of Contents

Toggle**Syllabus of ES-401 Energy & Environmental Engineering **

**Source**: (rgpv.ac.in)

**Module-1 : Introduction to Energy Science**

- Introduction to energy systems and resources;

- Introduction to Energy sustainability & the environment;

- Overview of energy systems sources

- transformations efficiency and storage;

- Fossil fuels (coal oil oil-bearing shale and sands

- coal gasification) – past present & future

- Remedies & alternatives for fossil fuels – biomass wind

- solar nuclear wave tidal and hydrogen;

- Sustainability and environmental trade-offs of different energy systems;

- possibilities for energy storage or regeneration (Ex. Pumped storage hydro power projects

- superconductor-based energy storages

- high efficiency batteries)

**Module-2 : Ecosystems**

- Concept of an ecosystem;

- Structure and function of an ecosystem;

- Producers consumers and decomposers;

- Energy flow in the ecosystem;

- Ecological succession;

- Food chains food webs and ecological pyramids;

- Introduction types characteristic features

- structure and function of the following ecosystem

- (a.)Forest ecosystem (b) Grassland ecosystem (c) Desert ecosystem (d) Aquatic ecosystems (ponds streams lakes rivers oceans estuaries)

**Module-3 : Biodiversity and its conservation**

- Introduction – Definition: genetic species and ecosystem diversity;

- Bio-geographical classification of India;

**Value of biodiversity :**consumptive use productive use

- social ethical aesthetic and option values;

- Biodiversity at global National and local levels;

- India as a mega-diversity nation;

- Hot-sports of biodiversity;

**Threats to biodiversity :**habitat loss poaching of wildlife

- man-wildlife conflicts;

- Endangered and endemic species of India;

**Conservation of biodiversity :**In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.

**Module-4 : Environmental Pollution**

- Definition Cause effects and control measures of Air pollution

- Water pollution Soil pollution

- Marine pollution Noise pollution

- Thermal pollution Nuclear hazards;

**Solid waste Management :**Causes effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes;

- Role of an individual in prevention of pollution;

- Pollution case studies;

**Disaster management :**floods earthquake

- cyclone and landslides.

**Module-5 : Social Issues and the Environment**

- From Unsustainable to Sustainable development;

- Urban problems related to energy;

- Water conservation

- rain water harvesting

- watershed management;

- Resettlement and rehabilitation of people;

- its problems and concerns.

**Case Studies Environmental ethics :**Issues and possible solutions.

- Climate change global warming

- acid rain ozone layer depletion

- nuclear accidents and holocaust.

- Case Studies Wasteland reclamation;

- Consumerism and waste products;

- Environment Protection Act;

- Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act;

- Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act;

- Wildlife Protection Act; Forest Conservation Act;

- Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation;

- Public awareness.

**Module-5 : Field work**

- Visit to a local area to document environmental assets river/forest/grassland/hill/mountain

- Visit to a local polluted site-Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural

- Study of common plants insects birds.

- Study of simple ecosystems-pond river hill slopes etc.

** == END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-402 Signals & Systems **

**Source**: (rgpv.ac.in)

**UNIT-1 : Introduction of Signals and Systems**

- Definition of signal

**Classification of Signal and representation :**Continuous time and discrete time even/odd periodic/aperiodic

- random/deterministic energy/power

- one/multidimensional some standard signals

- Basic Operations on Signals for CT/DT signal

- transformation of independent & dependent variables

**Definition of system and their classification :**CT/DT linear/non-linear variant/non-variant

- causal and non-causal system state/dynamic system

- interconnection of systems.

**System properties :**linearity: additivity and homogeneity

- shift-invariance causality stability realizability.

**UNIT-2 : Linear Time- Invariant Systems:**

- Introduction Impulse Response Representation for LTI Systems Convolution

- Properties of the Impulse Response Representation for LTI Systems

- Difference Equation for LTI Systems

- Block Diagram Representations(direct form-I direct form II Transpose cascade and parallel).

- Impulse response of DT-LTI system and its properties.

**UNIT-3 : z-Transform**

- Introduction ROC of finite duration sequence

- ROC of infinite duration sequence

- Relation between Discrete time Fourier Transform and z-transform

- properties of the ROC

- Properties of z-transform

- Inverse z-Transform

- Analysis of discrete time LTI system using z Transform

- Unilateral z-Transform.

**UNIT-4 : Fourier analysis of discrete time signals**

- Introduction Properties and application of discrete time Fourier series

- Representation of Aperiodic signals

- Fourier transform and its properties

- Convergence of discrete time Fourier transform

- Fourier Transform for periodic signals

- Applications of DTFT.

**UNIT-5 :**

- State-space analysis and multi-input

- multi-output representation.

- The state-transition matrix and its role.

- The Sampling Theorem and its implications- Spectra of sampled signals.

- Reconstruction

**LIST OF EXPERIMENTS :**

- Introduction to MATLAB Tool.
- To implement delta function unit step function ramp function and parabolic function for continuous-time.
- To implement delta function unit step function ramp function and parabolic function for discrete-time.
- To implement rectangular function triangular function sinc function and signum function for continuous-time.
- To implement rectangular function triangular function sinc function and signum function for discrete-time.
- To explore the communication of even and odd symmetries in a signal with algebraic operations.
- To explore the effect of transformation of signal parameters (amplitude-scaling time scaling & shifting).
- To explore the time variance and time invariance property of a given system.
- To explore causality and non-causality property of a system.
- To demonstrate the convolution of two continuous-time signals.
- To demonstrate the correlation of two continuous-time signals.
- To demonstrate the convolution of two discrete-time signals.
- To demonstrate the correlation of two discrete-time signals.
- To determine Magnitude and Phase response of Fourier Transform of given signals.

**== END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-403 Analog Communication **

**Source**: (rgpv.ac.in)

**UNIT-1 :**

**Frequency domain representation of signal :**Fourier transform and its properties condition of existence

- Fourier transform of impulse

- stepsignum cosine sine gate pulse constant

- properties of impulse function.

- Convolution theorem (time & frequency)

- correlation(auto & cross)

- energy & power spectral density

**UNIT-2 :**

**Introduction :**Overview of Communication system

- Communication channels Need for modulation

- Baseband and Pass band signals

**Amplitude Modulation :**Double side band with Carrier (DSB-C)

- Double side band without Carrier

- Single Side Band Modulation

- DSB-SC DSB-C SSB-SC Generation of AM

- DSB-SC SSB-SC VSB-SC & its detection

- Vestigial Side Band (VSB).

**UNIT-3 :**

- Types of angle modulation

- narrowband FM wideband FM

- its frequency spectrum transmission BW

- methods of generation (Direct & Indirect)

- detection of FM (discriminators: balanced phase shift and PLL detector)

- pre emphasis and de-emphasis.

**FM transmitter & receiver :**Block diagram of FM transmitter& receiver

- AGC AVC AFC

**UNIT-4 :**

**AM transmitter& receiver :**Tuned radio receiver &super heterodyne

- imitation of TRF IF frequency

- image signal rejection selectivity

- sensitivity and fidelity

- Noise in AM FM

**UNIT-5 :**

**Noise :**Classification of noise Sources of noise

- Noise figure and Noise temperature

- Noise bandwidth Noise figure measurement

- Noise in analog modulation

- Figure of merit for various AM and FM

- effect of noise on AM &FM receivers.

**List of Experiments:**

- To analyze characteristics of AM modulator & Demodulators.
- To analyze characteristics of FM modulators& Demodulators.
- To analyze characteristics of super heterodyne receivers.
- To analyze characteristics of FM receivers.
- To construct and verify pre emphasis and de-emphasis and plot the wave forms.
- To analyze characteristics of Automatic volume control and Automatic frequency control.
- To construct frequency multiplier circuit and to observe the waveform.
- To design and analyze characteristics of FM modulator and AM Demodulator using PLL.

**== END OF UNITS==**

** Syllabus of EC-404 Control System **

**Source**: __(rgpv.ac.in)__

**UNIT-1 : Introduction to Control system**

- Terminology and classification of control system

- examples of control system

- mathematical modeling of mechanical and electrical systems

- differential equations transfer function

- block diagram representation and reduction

- signal flow graph techniques.

**Feedback characteristics of control systems :**Open loop and closed loop systems

- effect of feedback on control system and on external disturbances

- linearization effect of feedback

- regenerative feedback

**UNIT-2 : Time response analysis**

- Standard test signals time response of 1st order system

- time response of 2nd order system

- steady-state errors and error constants

- effects of additions of poles and zeros to open loop and closed loop system.

**Time domain stability analysis :**

- Concept of stability of linear systems

- effects of location of poles on stability

- necessary conditions for stability

- Routh-Hurwitz stability criteria

- relative stability analysis Root Locus concept

- guidelines for sketching Root-Locus.

**UNIT-3 : Frequency response analysis**

- Correlation between time and frequency response

- Polar plots Bode Plots

- all-pass and minimum-phase systems

- log-magnitude versus Phase-Plots

- closed-loop frequency response.

**Frequency domain stability analysis :**

- Nyquist stability criterion

- assessment of relative stability using Nyquist plot and Bode plot (phase margin gain margin and stability).

**UNIT-4 :**

- Approaches to system design Design problem

- types of compensation techniques

- design of phase-lag

- phase lead and phase lead-lag compensators in time and frequency domain proportional derivative

- integral and Composite Controllers.

**UNIT-5 :**

- State space representation of systems

- block diagram for state equation

- transfer function decomposition

- solution of state equation transfer matrix

- relationship between state equation and transfer function

- controllability and observability.

**CONTROL SYSTEM LAB :**

Control System performance analysis and applications of MATLAB in Control system performance analysis & design.

**== END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-405 Analog Circuits **

**Source**: (rgpv.ac.in)

**UNIT-1 : Feedback Amplifier and Oscillators**

- Concept of feedback and their types

- Amplifier with negative feedback and its advantages.

- Feedback Topologies.

**UNIT-2 : Oscillators**

- Concept of Positive feedback

- Classification of Oscillators

- Barkhausen criterion

**Types of oscillators :**RC oscillator RC Phase Shift

- Wien Bridge Oscillators.

**LC Oscillator :**Hartley Colpitt’s

- Clapp and Crystal oscillator.

**UNIT-3 : Introduction to integrated circuits**

- Advantages and characteristic parameters of IC’s

- basic building components

- data sheets

**UNIT-4 : Operational Amplifier**

- Differential amplifier and analysis

- Configurations- Dual input balanced output differential amplifier

- Dual input Unbalanced output differential amplifier

- Single input balanced output differential amplifier

- Single input Unbalanced output differential amplifier Introduction of op-amp

- Block diagram characteristics and equivalent circuits of an ideal opamp

- Power supply configurations for OP-AMP.

**UNIT-5 : Characteristics of op-amp**

- Ideal and Practical

- Input offset voltage offset current

- Input bias current Output offset voltage

- thermal drift Effect of variation in power supply voltage

- common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR)

- Slew rate and its Effect PSRR and gain bandwidth product

- frequency limitations and compensations

- transient response

- analysis of TL082 datasheet.

**UNIT-6 : OP-AMP applications**

- Inverting and non-inverting amplifier configurations

- Summing amplifier Integrators and differentiators

- Instrumentation amplifier Differential input and differential output amplifier

- Voltage-series feedback amplifier

- Voltage-shunt feedback amplifier

- Log/ Antilog amplifier Triangular/rectangular wave generator

- phase-shift oscillators Wein bridge oscillator

- analog multiplier-MPY634 VCO Comparator

- Zero Crossing Detector.

**OP-AMP AS FILTERS :**Characteristics of filters

- Classification of filters Magnitude and frequency response

- Butterworth 1st and 2nd order Low pass

- High pass and band pass filters

- Chebyshev filter characteristics Band reject filters

- Notch filter; all pass filters self-tuned filters

- AGCAVC using op-AMP.

**UNIT-7 : TIMER**

- IC-555 Timer concept Block pin configuration of timer.

- Monostable Bistable and A stable Multivibrator using timer 555-IC

- Schmitt Trigger Voltage limiters

- Clipper and clampers circuits Absolute value output circuit

- Peak detector Sample and hold Circuit

- Precision rectifiers Voltage-to-current converter

- Current-to-voltage converter.

**UNIT-8 :**

**Voltage Regulator :**simple OP-AMP Voltage regulator

- Fixed and Adjustable Voltage Regulators

- Dual Power supply

- Basic Switching Regulator and characteristics of standard regulator ICs such as linear regulator

- Switching regulator andlow-drop out regulator.

- Study of LM317 TPS40200 and TPS7250

**List of Experiments :**

**Apparatus Required – **Dual Channel Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (0-20 MHz) Function Generator (10MHz and above) Dual Power Supply LM741 TL082 MPY634TPS7250 Probes digital multimeter.

- To measure and compare the op-amp characteristics: offset voltages bias currents CMRR Slew Rate of OPAMP LM741 and TL082.
- To determine voltage gain and frequency response of inverting and non-inverting amplifiers using TL082.
- To design an instrumentation amplifier and determine its voltage gain using TL082.
- To design op-amp integrator (low pass filter) and determine its frequency response.
- To design op-amp differentiator (high pass filter) and determine its frequency response.
- Design 2nd order Butterworth filter using universal active filter topology with LM741
- To design Astable Monostable and Bi stable multi vibrator using 555 and analyse its characteristics.
- Automatic Gain Control (AGC) Automatic Volume Control (AVC)using multiplier MPY634
- To design a PLL using op amp with MPY634 and determine the free running frequency the capture range and the lock in range of PLL
- Design and test a Low Dropout regulator using op-amps for a given voltage regulation characteristic and compare the characteristics with TPS7250 IC.

** == END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-406 Simulation Lab **

**Source**: __(rgpv.ac.in)__

**UNIT-1 : Design Optimization and simulation of**

- Basic Electronic circuits (examples rectifiers clippers clampers diode transistor characteristics etc).
- Transient and steady state analysis of RL/ RC/ RLC circuits realization of network theorems.
- Use of virtual instruments built in the software.

**UNIT-2 : Introduction to PCB layout software**

- Overview and use of the software in optimization

- designing and fabrication of PCB pertaining to above circuits simulated using above simulation software.

- Students should simulate and design the PCB for at least two circuits they are learning in the current semester.

** == END OF UNITS==**

** ==End of Syllabus== **