**Syllabus of B. Tech. VII Sem EC (RGPV)**

Table of Contents

Toggle**Syllabus of EC-701 VLSI Design **

**Source**: (rgpv.ac.in)

**UNIT-1 : Practical Consideration and Technology in VLSI Design**

- Introduction Size and complexity of Integrated Circuits

- The Microelectronics Field

- IC ProductionProcess Processing Steps

- Packaging and Testing MOS Processes

- NMOS Process CMOS ProcessBipolar Technology

- Hybrid Technology

- Design Rules and Process

**UNIT-2 : Device Modeling**

- Dc Models Small Signal Models

- MOS Models MOSFET Models in High Frequency and small signal

- Short channel devices

- Sub threshold Operations

- Modeling Noise Sources in MOSFET’s

- Diode ModelsBipolar Models

- Passive component Models.

**UNIT-3 : Circuit Simulation**

- Introduction Circuit Simulation Using Spice

- MOSFET Model Level 1 Large signal model

- Level 2Large Signal Model

- High Frequency Model

- Noise Model of MOSFET

- Large signal Diode Current

- High Frequency BJT Model

- BJT Noise Model

- temperature Dependence of BJT.

**UNIT-4 : Structured Digital Circuits and Systems**

- Random Logic and Structured Logic Forms

- Register Storage Circuits Quasi Static Register Cells

- AStatic Register Cell

- Micro coded Controllers

- Microprocessor Design

- Systolic Arrays

- Bit-SerialProcessing Elements

- Algotronix.

**UNIT-5 :** **CMOS Processing Technology**

- Basic CMOS Technology

- A Basic n-well CMOS Process

- Twin Tub Processes

- CMOS ProcessEnhancement

- Interconnects and Circuit Elements

- Layout Design Rules Latch up

- Physical Origin Latchup Triggering

- Latch up Prevention

- Internal Latch up Prevention Techniques.

** == END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-702 (A) Microwave Engineering ****(Departmental Elective) **

**Source**: (rgpv.ac.in)

**UNIT-1 :**

- Features and applications of microwaves

- Wave propagation in striplines and microstrip lines

- Slot lines Limitations of conventional vacuum tubes

- Microwave tubes like Two cavity klystron and Reflex klystron

- Magnetron TWT Backward wave oscillator etc.

- millimeter wave integrated circuits.

**UNIT-2 :**

- Solid state microwave sources

- transferred electron devices

- Tunnel diode Gunn diode and oscillators

- IMPATT diode TRAPATT diode Pin diode

- Varactor diode Schottky diode

- Parametric amplifiers Crystal diode

- Frequency multipliers Microwave BJT & FET

**UNIT-3 :**

- Scattering matrix

- S-parameters & its applications in Network analysis

- Matching Network Detector diodes detector mounts

- detector output indicator

- slotted line measurement of power

- impedance & S-parameter

- measurement of frequency & VSWR.

**UNIT-4 :**

- Impedance transformer Microwave filters

- Power dividers and directional couplers

- E-plane Tee H-plane tee Matched hybrid Tee.

- Wave propagation in ferrite medium

- Isolators Circulators YIG resonators

- Simulation Techniques for design of Microwave Components.

**UNIT-5 :**

- Analysis and design of Dielectric resonators;

- Design of RF and microwave low noise and power amplifiers & oscillators using S-parameter techniques

- Mixer and converter design

- diode phase shifters attenuators

- Design of hybrid and monolithic

- microwave and

**== END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-702 (B) Information Theory and Coding ****(Departmental Elective) **

**Source**: (rgpv.ac.in)

**UNIT-1 :**

**Information Theory :**Introduction to uncertainty

- entropy and its properties

- entropy of binary memoryless source and its extension to discrete memory-less source

- Measure of information Information content ofmessage

- Average Information content of symbols.

- Self information

- Mutualinformation and its properties

**UNIT-2 :**

- Coding theorem:Source coding theorem

- prefix coding Shannon’s Encoding Algorithm

- Shannon Fano Encoding Algorithm

- Huffman coding Extended Huffman codingArithmetic Coding

- Lempel-Ziv Coding Run Length Encoding.

**UNIT-3 :**

**Information Channels :**Communication Channels

- Channel Models Channel Matrix

- Joint probability Matrix

- Discrete memory less channels

- Binary symmetric channeland its channel capacity

- channel coding theorem

- and its application to Binary Erasure Channel

- Shannon’s theorem on channel capacity

- capacity of channel of infinite bandwidth

- Continuous Channels.

**UNIT-4 :**

- Error Control Coding:Introduction

- Examples of Error control coding

- methods of Controlling Errors Typesof Errors

- types of Codes

**Linear Block Codes :**matrix description of Linear BlockCodes

- Error Detection and Error Correction Capabilities of Linear Block Codes

- Probability of undetected error for linear block code in BSC

- hamming Codes and their applications

**Cyclic Codes :**Cyclic codes and its basic properties

- Encoding using an (n-k) BitShift register

- Generator & parity check matrix of cyclic codes

- encoding & decoding circuits

- syndrome computation

- error detection and correction

**UNIT-5 :**

- Introduction to BCH codes

- its encoding & decoding error location & correction.

- Convolution Codes:Introduction to convolution codes

- its construction Convolution Encoder

- Time domain approach

- Transform domainapproach

- Code Tree Trellis and State Diagram

**Viterbi algorithm :**Introduction of theorem for maximum likelihood decoding.

**== END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-702 (C) Nano Electronics ****(Departmental Elective) **

**Source**: __(rgpv.ac.in)__

**UNIT-1 :**

- Overview of semiconductor physics.

- Nanoscale band structure and Electron transport

**Quantum confinement in semiconductor nanostructures :**

- quantum wells quantum wires quantum dots

- super-lattices band offsets and electronic density of states

- heavily doped semiconductors and low dimensional quantum devices.

**UNIT-2 :**

- Introduction to lithography- Contact

- proximity printing and Projection Printing

- Resolution Enhancement techniques

- overlay-accuracies

- Mask-Error enhancement factor (MEEF)

- Positive and negative photoresists

- Electron Lithography Projection Printing

- Direct writing Electron resists.

**UNIT-3 :**

- Tunnel junction and applications of tunneling

- Tunneling Through a Potential Barrier

- Metal—Insulator Metal-Semiconductor

- and Metal-Insulator-Metal Junctions

- Coulomb Blockade Coulomb blockade in nanocapacitor

- Tunnel Junctions

- Tunnel Junction Excited by a Current Source.

**UNIT-4 :**

- Field Emission

- Gate—Oxide Tunneling and Hot Electron Effects in nano MOSFETs

- Theory of Scanning Tunneling Microscope

- Double Barrier Tunneling and the Resonant Tunneling Diode.

- Nanoscale MOSFET Finfets

- charge and energy quantization in Single electron devices.

**UNIT-5 :**

- Scaling of physical systems – Geometric scaling & Electrical system scaling Introduction to MEMS and NEMS

- working principles as micro sensors (acoustic wave sensor biomedical and biosensor chemical sensor optical sensor capacitive sensor pressure sensor and thermal sensor)

- micro actuation (thermal actuation piezoelectric actuation).

**== END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-703 (A) Cellular Mobile Communication ****(Departmental Elective ) **

**Source**: (rgpv.ac.in)

**UNIT-1 :**

**Introduction to cellular mobile system :**A basic cellular system performance criteria uniqueness of mobile radio environment

- operation of cellular systems

- planning of cellular system

**Elements of cellular radio system design :**General description of problem

- concept of frequency reuse channels

- co-channel interference reduction factor

- desired C/I in an omni-directional antenna system

- hand off mechanism cell splitting

- components of cellular systems.

**UNIT-2 :**

**Cell coverage for signal and traffic :**General introduction mobile point-to-point model propagation over water or flat open area

- foliage loss propagation in near- in distance long distance propagation

- path loss from pointto-point prediction model

- cell site antenna heights and signal coverage cells

- mobile-tomobile propagation.

**Cell site antennas and mobile antennas:**Equivalent circuits of antennas gain and pattern relationship sum and difference patterns antennas at cell site unique situations of cell site antennas mobile antennas.

**UNIT-3 :**

**Cochannel interference reduction:**Cochannel interference

- real time cochannel interference measurement at mobile radio transceivers

- design of antenna systems – omni directional and directional

- lowering the antenna height

- reduction of cochannel interference

- umbrella- pattern effect

- diversity receiver

- designing a system to serve a predefined area that experiences cochannel interference.

** Types of Noncochannel interference:**

- Adjacent channel interference

- near-end-far-end interference

- effect on near-end mobile units

- cross-talk effects of coverage and interference by applying power decrease

- antenna height decrease beam tilting

- effects of cell site components

- interference between systems

- UHF TV interference

- long distance interference.

**UNIT-4 :**

**Frequency management and Channel Assignment :**Frequency management frequency spectrum utilization setup channels

- channel assignment

- fixed channel assignment

- non-fixed channel assignment algorithms

- additional spectrum traffic and channel assignment

- perception of call blocking from the subscribers

**UNIT-5 :**

**Digital Cellular Systems :**GSM- architecture

- layer modeling transmission

- GSM channels and channel modes

- multiple access scheme.

- CDMA- terms of CDMA systems

- output power limits and control

- modulation characteristics call processing

- hand off procedures.

- Miscellaneous mobile systems- TDD systems

- cordless phone PDC PCN PCS

- non cellular systems.

** == END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC-703 (B) Internet of Things (IoT)****(Open Elective)**

**Source**: __(rgpv.ac.in)__

**UNIT-1 :**

**Introduction :**Definition Characteristics of IOT

- IOT Conceptual framework

- IOT Architectural view

- Physical design of IOT

- Logical design of IOT

- Application of IOT.

**UNIT-2 :**

- Machine-to-machine (M2M)

- SDN (software defined networking) and NFV(network function virtualization) for IOT data storage in IOT

- IOT Cloud Based Services.

**UNIT-3 :**

**Design Principles for Web Connectivity :**Web Communication Protocols for connected devices

- Message Communication Protocols for connected devices

- MQTT CoAP SOAP REST

- HTTP Restful and Web Sockets.

**Internet Connectivity Principles :**Internet Connectivity Internet based communication

- IP addressing in IOT

- Media Access control.

**UNIT-4 :**

- Sensor Technology Participatory Sensing

- Industrial IOT and Automotive IOT

- Actuator Sensor data Communication Protocols

- Radio Frequency Identification Technology

- Wireless Sensor Network Technology.

**UNIT-5 :**

**IOT Design methodology :**Specification -Requirement process

- model service functional & operational view.

- IOT Privacy and security solutions

- Raspberry Pi &arduino devices.

**IOT Case studies :**smart city streetlights control & monitoring.

**== END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC- 703 (C) Probability Theory and Stochastic processing (Open Elective) **

**Source**: __(rgpv.ac.in)__

**UNIT-1 :**

**Probability and Random Variable Probability :**Probability introduced through Sets and Relative Frequency Experiments and Sample Spaces

- Discrete and Continuous Sample Spaces

- Events Probability Definitions and Axioms

- Mathematical Model of Experiments

- Probability as a Relative Frequency

- Joint Probability Conditional Probability

- Total Probability Bayes’ Theorem Independent Events.

**Random Variable :**Definition of a Random Variable

- Conditions for a Function to be a Random Variable

- Discrete Continuous and Mixed Random Variables

**UNIT-2 :**

**Distribution & Density Functions and Operation on One Random Variable – Expectations Distribution; Density Functions:**Distribution and Density functions and their Properties – Binomial Poisson Uniform

- Gaussian Exponential Rayleigh and Conditional Distribution

- Methods of defining Conditional Event

- Conditional Density Properties.

**Operation on One Random Variable – Expectations :**Introduction Expected Value of a Random Variable

- Function of a Random Variable

- Moments about the Origin Central Moments

- Variance and Skew Chebychev’s Inequality

- Characteristic Function Moment Generating Function

**Transformations of a Random Variable :**Monotonic Transformations for a Continuous Random Variable

- Non-monotonic Transformations of Continuous Random Variable

- Transformation of a Discrete Random Variable.

**UNIT-3 :**

**Multiple Random Variables and Operations Multiple Random Variables :**Vector Random Variables

- Joint Distribution Function

- Properties of Joint Distribution

- Marginal Distribution Functions

- Conditional Distribution and Density – Point Conditioning

- Conditional Distribution and Density – Interval conditioning

- Statistical Independence Sum of Two Random Variables

- Sum of Several Random Variables

- Central Limit Theorem (Proof not expected)

- Unequal Distribution Equal Distributions.

**Operations on Multiple Random Variables :**Expected Value of a Function of Random Variables: Joint Moments about the Origin

- Joint Central Moments Joint Characteristic Functions

**Jointly Gaussian Random Variables :**Two Random Variables case

- N Random Variable case Properties

- Transformations of Multiple Random Variables

- Linear Transformations of Gaussian Random Variables.

**UNIT-4 :**

**Stochastic Processes – Temporal Characteristics :**The Stochastic Process Concept Classification of Processes

- Deterministic and Nondeterministic Processes

- Distribution and Density Functions

- Concept of Stationarity and Statistical Independence

- First-Order Stationary Processes

- Second-Order and Wide-Sense Stationarity

- Nth Order and Strict-Sense Stationarity

- Time Averages and Ergodicity Mean-Ergodic Processes

- Correlation-Ergodic Processes

- Autocorrelation Function and its Properties

- Cross-Correlation Function and its Properties

- Covariance and its Properties

- Linear System Response of Mean and Meansquared Value

- Autocorrelation Function

- Cross-Correlation Functions

- Gaussian Random Processes

- Poisson Random Process.

**UNIT-5 :**

**Stochastic Processes – Spectral Characteristics :**Power Spectrum: Properties Relationship between Power Spectrum and Autocorrelation Function

- Cross-Power Density Spectrum

- Properties Relationship between Cross-Power Spectrum and Cross-Correlation Function

**Spectral Characteristics of System Response :**Power Density Spectrum of Response

- Cross Power Spectral Density of Input and Output of a Linear System.

**== END OF UNITS==**

**Syllabus of EC- 705 IOT LAB **

**Source**: __(rgpv.ac.in)__

**List of Experiments **

LAB INDEX Design Developed and implement following using Arduino Raspberry Pi compiler and Python language in Linux/Windows environment.

- Study and Install IDE of Arduino and different types of Arduino.
- Write program using Arduino IDE for Blink LED.
- Write Program for RGB LED using Arduino.
- Study the Temperature sensor and Write Program foe monitor temperature using Arduino.
- Study and Implement RFID NFC using Arduino.
- Study and Configure Raspberry Pi.
- WAP for LED blink using Raspberry Pi.
- Study and Implement Zigbee Protocol using Arduino / Raspberry Pi.
- Study and implement MQTT protocol using Arduino. 1
- Study and implement CoAP protocol using Arduino.

**== END OF UNITS==**

** ==End of Syllabus== **